Typhoid is a bacterial infection that is spread via contaminated food and water. It is a highly contagious disease that affects approximately 18 million cases a year with around 400,000 of these cases resulting in death.
Countries at risk Due to the way in which the disease is spread, typhoid is mainly found in countries where sanitation levels are poor and there is a limited supply to clean water. The disease is widespread in much of the world including Africa, South East Asia, Central Asia and Central & South America.
Only drink from a sealed water bottle or boiled water. Avoid ice and salad that has been washed with tap water. Only eat fruit that can be peeled and avoid uncooked food. Ensure that food is freshly cooked and piping hot.
The most common symptons of typhoid include a high fever, stomach pain, headache and constipation or diarrhoea. If the symptons are not treated there is a possibility for the them to become worse and lead to the a higher risk of the disease being fatal.
Travellers travelling to at risk coutries are advised to receive a typhoid vaccination. The vaccination can either be given orally (a course of 3 capsules) or an injection. The oral typhoid vaccination is approximately 80% the effectiveness of the injection and is advised for people who are unable to receive the injection. The typhoid injection is effective for up to 3 years.
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